Business Transaction Without Contract

In the business transaction, the parties usually make a written agreement to anticipate if there is a dispute in the future related to business transaction, where the written agreement aims to protect the rights of the parties if one party defaults.

Usually, commercial disputes occur due to negligence of one party, either regarding payment or work that is not in accordance as promised. If so, then the parties will strictly hold to the written agreement that was ever signed.

The term of consent, agreement, or contract basically same because referred to legal basis as stipulated on Civil Code Article 1320:

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Dispute Resolution through BANI (Indonesia National Arbitration Board)


Basically, commercial disputes can be proceed through the court or arbitration forums, where both types have different mechanisms and conditions. The mechanism through arbitration forums (generally) refers to the provisions of Law No. 30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution (“Law No. 30/1999”).

According to the provisions of Article 1 No. 1 Law No. 30/1999 is stated explicitly as follows:

Arbitration is a method of resolving a civil dispute outside the general court based on an arbitration agreement made in writing by disputing parties“.

So it is expressly stated that the arbitration forum is only intended for civil Continue reading “Dispute Resolution through BANI (Indonesia National Arbitration Board)”

Overview Criminal Procedures in Indonesia

In general, the procedures criminal proceeding in Indonesia should be referred to Law No. 8 of 1981 regarding Criminal Procedures Law (“CPL“). Briefly, the procedures of criminal cases through the following stages:

  1. Stage of Preliminary investigation
  2. Stage of Investigation
  3. Stage of Prosecution
  4. Stage of Court Hearing in District Court

 Each of these stages is handled by different institution but still in one line, in the other hand that Continue reading “Overview Criminal Procedures in Indonesia”

Memahami Gugatan Class Action

Gugatan class action telah dikenal pertama kali pada abad ke 17 di Inggris, kemudian meluas penerapannya di abad ke 19 di negara-negara lainnya seperti Amerika Serikat, Kanada, Australia, dan lain-lain, yang pada umumnya adalah negara-negara dengan sistem hukum common law, tetapi bagi Indonesia sendiri pemahaman konsep ini masih terbilang baru. Meskipun konsep gugatan Perwakilan Kelompok berawal dari Inggris, namun prosedur gugatannya pertama kali baru dirumuskan dalam Undang- Undang di Amerika Serikat yaitu US Federal Rule of Civil Procedure (1938) dan diundangkan pada tahun 1966.

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Memahami Gugatan Citizen Lawsuit

Gugatan Citizen Law Suit (CLS) atau Actio Popularis pada dasarnya belum dikenal dalam sistem hukum di Indonesia. Gugatan model ini telah dikenal dan berkembang di negara yang menganut sistem hukum Common Law. Namun tampaknya konsep tersebut mulai sering digunakan dalam sistem peradilan di Indonesia. Pengadilan Negeri Jakarta Pusat misalnya telah menerima model gugatan citizen lawsuit. Pertimbangan hakim menerima gugatan ini adalah bahwa “…setiap warga negara tanpa kecuali, mempunyai hak membela kepentingan umum. Dengan demikian setiap warga negara Continue reading “Memahami Gugatan Citizen Lawsuit”